† Department of Horticultural Sciences and Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center
‡ Veterinary Integrative Biosciences
Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843
J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57 (12), pp 5219–5226
Publication Date (Web): May 28, 2009
Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the cancer suppression activity of extracts from a commercial variety of yellow-fleshed peach ‘Rich Lady’ (RL) and a red-fleshed plum ‘Black Splendor’ (BS) and identify the phenolic fractions that may possess potential as chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic natural compounds. The peach RL extract effectively inhibited the proliferation of the estrogen-independent MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line. The concentration to inhibit 50% of cell proliferation (IC50) was 42 mg/L for this cell line compared to an IC50 of 130 and 515 mg/L for the noncancerous breast cell line MCF-10A and the estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line MCF-7, respectively. Similarly, BS extracts showed greater effects on MDA-MB-435 cells as compared to the other breast cancer or the normal breast cell lines. In general, BS extracts were less effective than RL extracts. Within all RL and BS fractions, fraction 3 (F3, flavonoids) and fraction 4 (F4, procyanidins) were more potent than fraction 1 (F1, phenolic acids) and fraction 2 (F2, anthocyanins) against the three cell lines. The order of potency of RL fractions against MDA-MB-435 was F3 F4 > F1 > F2. The antiproliferative activity of pure compounds identified in F3 and F1 confirmed that quercetin 3β-glucoside is the bioactive compound in F3, with the same level of toxicity on the estrogen-independent MDA-MB-435 breast cancer and breast epithelial MCF-10A cells (IC50 = 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.3, respectively). However, we confirmed that phenolic acids present in F1: chlorogenic and neo-chlorogenic acids have potential as chemopreventive dietary compounds because of the relatively high growth inhibition exerted on the estrogen-independent MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line and low toxicity exerted in the normal MCF-10A cells.