AddThis Feed Button "Frequently Copied, Never Duplicated"

Monday, March 28, 2011

Fl - A Difficult Halogen for People to Understand

UPDATE: 28 March, 2011
As more people move to add sea vegetables to their diets to help aid protection from radioactive fall out, be aware that hijiki is very high in arsenic.

Seaweed and toxins

Title: Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae
Authors: Maria Teresa Cabrita 1, Carlos Vale 1 and Amélia Pilar Rauter 2
Affiliations: 1 IPIMAR, Av. de Brasília, 1449-006 Lisboa, Portugal E-Mails: (C.V.); (M.T.C.)
2 Centro de Química e Bioquímica/Departamento de Química e Bioquímica da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed C8, Piso 5, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal; E-Mail: (A. P. R.)
Abstract: Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. The structure exhibited by these compounds goes from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for the past two decades, although other properties like antifouling are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years but the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algae species are poorly screened. Apart from the biotechnological potential, the ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to understanding biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compounds production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton is a very promising material as the bottom link of the marine food chain with very quickly adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on the secondary metabolism. This paper summarizes current knowledge and revises recent progress and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.
marine algae; halogenated compounds; biotechnological applications; ecological role

From 3 March, 2009 -
In the periodic table of elements one finds the halogen family at an atomic weight of 9.

The halogens are five non-metallic elements found in group 17 of the periodic table. The Halogens are: Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine. The term "halogen" means "salt-former" and compounds containing halogens are called "salts". All halogens have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1. The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter:

Solid- Iodine, Astatine
Liquid- Bromine
Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine

Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements, and this property is one of the reasons why it easily displaces Iodine. Iodine is critically necessary for health.

The fluoride ion is highly toxic. Los Alamos National Laboratory recommends that no one be exposed to more than 1ppm Fl- in any 8-hour time period. Cumulative exposure to Fl- may result in the hardening of the Pineal Gland, is considered to be the electro-magnetic foci of the human body, and the gland that is directly involved with the production of melatonin. Vitamin B12 is also a substance that seems to be related to health of the Pineal gland.

Fluoride Excess is cumulative and there is a danger of ingesting fluoride in any so called "natural form" as is found in the current trend for Pink Himalayan Salt, which is known to contain many other heavy metals, some not at all necessary for human health.

People who live in areas where the drinking water has a naturally high fluoride level may consume too much fluoride—causing a condition called fluorosis. Fluoride accumulates in teeth, particularly permanent teeth. Chalky white, irregular patches appear on the surface of the tooth enamel. The patches become stained yellow or brown, causing the enamel to appear mottled. The teeth may also become pitted.

Fluoride also accumulates in bones. Rarely, consuming too much fluoride for a long time results in dense but weak bones, abnormal bone growths (spurs) on the spine, and crippling due to calcium accumulation (calcification) in ligaments.

(Some of the material found in this post on Fl- comes from the Merck Index and Merck Manual)

Fluoride in salt, water, pharmaceuticals, dental products, pesticides and herbicides, chemicals used in war and any other form continues to cause a myriad of health problems.

See also
and other posts related to Fluoride via the search window.

No comments: